Such a move is unusual before mid-life. But James Fowler's Stages, formulated on interviews of actual people wherein their religious beliefs were sometimes extensively discussed, has been widely accepted as referring to spiritual development in general if not specifically to religious belief. Peck, M. Scott. Want to evangelize more effectively, or just know more about Faith Development… The fourth and fifth stages as delineated by Fowler, and the third stage as described by Peck, may be termed the “Questioning” period. Do I pretend to care about others but only to get what I want? Again, Fowler contends that many adults never move out of this stage of faith development. With understanding? Faith Development and Pastoral Care. They remain aware of the value inherent in the previous two stages and are nonjudgmental in their perspective about those stages. Fowler held that “Each stage requires the reworking of past solutions and … Stages of faith. Intro: A person will normally move into the third of James Fowler's Stages, the Synthetic, Conventional stage around puberty but apparently, many adults never move beyond it. (1971). The book, entitled Stages of Faith: the Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning , is based on Piaget’s work depicting stages of human psychological development. Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning. For example, a child may get scratched by her cat and become angry with it. They tend to see God as an anthropomorphic deity: strict, strong, and just. More importantly, Fowler’s Stages of Faith theory has been used in pastoral counseling and spiritual care, and continues to be taught in seminaries, and other faith-based educational institutions worldwide. Keywords: Faith development Fowler, faith development, student development theory When discussing spiritual development, it is nearly impossible not to discuss the work of James Fowler and the impact he has had on the study of faith. Egocentricity continues, but it is now coupled with the ability to think abstractly as well as concretely and to evaluate various concepts that are presented to them. The first real stage is the Intuitive-Projective faith stage. New York: Harper Collins, 1981. In an effort to move away from the chaos of the first stage, Peck speculates that some individuals move on to a second, Formal-Institutional stage. It allows the assessment of clients’ spiritual development free from the specific content of any faith tradition. Some of the better-known stage theories include Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development; Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development; and Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. spiritual development. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2004. More will be discussed on this later. James Fowler, in his book, Stages of Faith and other writings, set forth the idea that faith development occurs in six predictable stages, though few people progress through all six stages. Both Teresa and Fowler drew their models from the study of individual lives. The fifth stage, as identified by Fowler, is that of Conjunctive Faith stage. Fowler not only explained the concept of faith and differentiated it from religion, but also mapped out the process by which individuals progress in their development as faithful individuals through a stage theory. The next stage is that of the Individuate-Reflective stage. In it he outlined six stages of faith developmemt a person might go through as they mature through adulthood. The adolescent adopts a social stance, realizing that others have their own perspectives—feelings, thoughts, desires, motivations, and intentions. Mr. Sergio M. Sarza APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace. Fowler’s work provides the basis upon which M. Scott Peck set forth his perspectives on spiritual development in. Unlike religion, which is essentially part of a social structure, faith, according to Fowler, is universal. Here, one looks more deeply at the Faith is considered as a holistic orientation with regard to the individual’s relatedness to the universal. The term Fowler’s stages refers to a model of the development of faith across the life span proposed (1981) by James W. Fowler. But James Fowler's Stages, formulated on interviews of actual people wherein their religious beliefs were sometimes extensively discussed, has been widely accepted as referring to spiritual development in general if not specifically to religious belief. Some self-reflective questions here might include: How have my beliefs changed since I first came into contact with the Theosophical Society? For younger adolescents, that authority may be a parent or some other important adult, while for older adolescents and adults, this figure may be a friend or someone from the religious community. When thought and language begin to open the child up to the use of symbols in speech and ritual play, the child moves on to Stage 1: Intuitive-Projective Faith which is typical of children ages 2 through 7. The spiritual crisis that began in Stage 4 has now prompted deeper questioning, which results in a growing awareness of the mystical self. . During this stage (which usually occurs in middle age), individuals are capable of analyzing other belief systems and using that analysis to either amend or support their own beliefs. If I’m good enough, maybe one day the Mahatma will visit me or send me a message. Basic trust and loyalty are laid down between the ages of zero and two. Ormrod. This stage makes one think of the statement, “I’m not attached to anything in the physical world, but don’t interfere with my beliefs!” Are we attached to our beliefs? Fowler’s work provides the basis upon which M. Scott Peck set forth his perspectives on spiritual development in The Different Drum. Fascinatingly, humanity’s understanding of God can be seen progressing through the pages of Jewish scripture into the fullness of Christ. Peck calls the first of his stages the Chaotic-Antisocial. Fowler distinguishes between six stages (Fowler Explore the development models of James Fowler, Pierre de Chardin, and St. John of the Cross; Reflect on the connections between developmental aspects of human maturation; Identify key elements in the Christian vision of family life as a wider context for faith development; Week 3: Childhood and Adolescence . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987. Most importantly, we can use this information to move forward on the Path so that we may truly recognize the unity of all life and work for the good of humanity as a whole. During these years, children begin to understand causality, to distinguish between reality and fantasy, and to become wonderful storytellers. He bases his stages on the work of Fowler. Fowler does not define faith through any … For criticism see Developmental approaches to religion. In his book 1981 book Stages of Faith, James W. Fowler developed a theory of six stages that people go through as their faith matures based on the Piaget stages and Kohlberg stages. Many of these are called stage theories because they discuss the development of individuals as they pass through various stages. Such a move is unusual before mid-life. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. James Fowler's model of faith development is compared with the course of development described by St. Teresa of Avila in her classic work,Interior Castle. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. In 1981 James Fowler, a Christian theologian, published a groundbreaking book on the subject of human spiritual growth. Intro: According to Fowler, it is ideal that a person reach this stage in their early to mid-twenties, but as has already been discussed, it is evident that many adults never reach it. Peck identifies four stages of spiritual development as opposed to Fowler’s six (see table). Without a doubt, the Mahatmas live in the Himalaya mountains. According to Fowler, some individuals remain in this stage throughout their lives. Fowler's model has inspired a considerable body of empirical research into faith development, although little of such research was ever conducted by Fowler himself. According to Fowler , people who make it through the previous stages generally arrive at Stage 5 sometime around 35 or 40 years old (midlife crisis). The book, entitled Stages of Faith: the Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning , is based on Piaget’s work depicting stages of human psychological development. Those who continue to seek may find themselves in the final stage of Peck’s theory, the Mystical-Communal. Fowler contends that few people reach the final stage of faith development, Universalizing Faith. When discussing spiritual development, it is nearly impossible not to discuss the work of James Fowler and the impact he has had on the study of faith. The fourth and fifth stages as delineated by Fowler, and the third stage as described by Peck, may be termed the “Questioning” period. Indeed they may realize that learning about the belief systems of others may deepen their own. So says James W. Fowler in the introduction to his most popular work, `Stages of Faith'. These theorists imply that the stages are linear—passed through once and left behind forever—but this is not necessarily accurate. FDT gives insight into spiritual and religious development using a non-sectarian approach. ... lifespan spiritual development is James Fowler’s faith development model which . The paper first presents a brief summary of Fowler's model, then goes through the different levels of development described by St. Teresa, comparing each of … A useful tool here has been Gary Leak's Faith Development Scale, or FDS, which has been subject to factor analysis by Leak. This article outlines the basics of Fowler's theory and then applies it the practice of Evangelization. Individuals may vacillate between stages, given different circumstances in life. We must determine what is true for us at this particular point in our lives. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. What caused that change? One is normally propelled towards the next stage by what Fowler termed a crisis. In this stage, the child's imagination is forme. Jun 12, 2015 - Dr. James Fowler's theory of Faith Development is the epitome of Theology and Psychology integration. The first of Fowler’s stages of faith development focuses on the beliefs of pre-school-age children (approximately from ages two to six or seven). Fowler’s work, often considered to be groundbreaking, describes six stages of faith. Fowler’s stage three and Peck’s stage two may be called the “Hang On to My Security” period. The first element involves spiritual development throughout life in stages (based on James Fowler's six ‘stages of faith'). His faith is no longer able to provide meaning for his life experience, and thus he begins to question and analyze. Child Development: Educating and Working with Children andAdolescents. Kirst-Ashman and Zastrow (2004) add a 'Primal or Undifferentiated' stage prior to stage 1. In reviewing Fowler’s first and second stages, equivalent to Peck’s first stage, we may call this the Egocentric and Concrete period of spiritual development. Fowler, J.W. In any event, this figure exists outside of the individual, and the individual looks to that figure for guidance. D., RGC From a moral point of view, according to Kohlberg, they focus on a strict sense of fairness, of right versus wrong. Ed. In 1981, James Fowler published Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning. Here they become affiliated with some type of institution that provides security and stability. Some of us may quickly review these stages and determine that we are definitely in the final stage of both theories. Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). Some may skip a stage altogether. fowler - stage 1 of 7. undifferentiated. Faith is considered as a holistic orientation with regard to the individual’s relatedness to the universal. Nascent – budding, promising, embryonic, emerging, blossoming, growing, 1. If our belief systems remain the same now as they were ten, twenty, or thirty years ago, then perhaps we have not reexamined those beliefs. Teenagers begin to develop their individuality, especially in relation to values, relationships, and commitments. While they may espouse loving and caring for others, they are primarily … … The first, a four stage theory, was printed in his exceptional volume entitled Will our Children Have Faith? James Fowler describes people at this stage as having "a special grace that makes them seem more lucid, more simple, and yet somehow more fully human than the rest of us." BRUCE POWERS Faith is an interpretation of the way persons have experienced life. Developmental psychologists have attempted to understand if there is a discernible universal pattern to how a person’s values and perspectives change at different stages in their life. Peck’s stages of spiritual development thus move from a chaotic and egocentric stage through conformity, questioning, and into a focus on community and unity within the beauty of the universe. Many of these are called. Self-awareness through continuous self-reflection (questioning ourselves, our beliefs, our thoughts, our actions) is essential if we are to continue this journey. We can also ask more specifically about the body of beliefs that exist within the Theosophical Society. James Fowler investigated and developed a stage theory for the development of religious faith. Whether or not these thoughts accurately reflect reality, how immersed are we in believing them to be the absolute truth? You can change your ad preferences anytime. We must question our beliefs, looking at them analytically and reflectively. Faith is considered as a holistic orientation with regard to the individual’s relatedness to the universal. But as seekers on the Path, it is essential that we critically examine our beliefs without attachment or bias. James Fowler – Stages of Faith Development According to Fowler, people develop faith through certain stages. If nothing has changed, am I holding on to my beliefs because I need the security? Individuals may vacillate between stages, given different circumstances in life. The basic theory can be applied, not only to those in traditional faiths, but those who follow alternative spiritualities or secular worldviews as well. His Stages 0 and 1 (IF they were present in an adult) would be roughly equivalent to our (egocentric) Lawless stage. Peck points out that stage two individuals can be found in every ideology. James Fowler (d. 2015), a late theological scholar and former Professor at Emory University, proposed the most cited stage-model theory taking into account faith and faith development. McDevitt, T.M., and J.E. To determine if we remain in or briefly return to this period, we can ask ourselves: Is my belief system literal? Faculty In-charge. We must question our beliefs, looking at them analytically and reflectively. According to Fowler, during the pre-stage, an infant cannot conceptualize the idea of “God,” but learns either trust or mistrust during relations with caretakers, which provides a basis for faith development (Parker, p. 339). Many children at this age tend to perceive God as somewhat ambiguous and hazily “magical.” (We are not taking into account here the children who remain in touch with the unseen world and have a more accurate understanding of Reality.). After all, we serve others (Fowler’s sixth stage) and we believe in community and unity (Peck’s fourth stage). James Fowler, professor of theology and human development, builds on the contributions of psychologists Piaget, Erikson, and Kohlberg in his book Stages of Faith. Peck identifies four stages of spiritual development as opposed to Fowler’s six (see table). If the infant’s needs are met by its caregivers, and it experiences trust and security, especially in regard to differentiation and separation, then it successfully negotiates this stage, providing a stable base from which faith will continue to develop. If the cat dies shortly afterward, the child may believe that she caused its death through her own anger. Because of these parameters, children in the Mythic-Literal Stage are predisposed to believing the stories told to them by their faith communities in a very literal manner. between 90 and 100% of young adults have expressed a belief in God according to the . One important aspect of this stage, according to Fowler, is the need for a religious authority figure. The spiritual crisis that began in Stage 4 has now prompted deeper questioning, which results in a growing awareness of the mystical self. This stage is marked by a focus on rules, which also provide security and stability; thus individuals at this level may be perceived as dogmatic and legalistic in their beliefs. Although Fowler (1981) originally envisioned spiritual SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS and religious development as stage-like, based on … Pre-stage: Infancy and Undifferentiated Faith . These individuals do not need the structure of an institution and thus feel free to question their beliefs. Individuals in Peck’s third stage, the Skeptic-Individual, tend to be perceived or identify as nonbelievers, atheists, agnostics, or as scientifically minded individuals who want researched and logical explanations for the meaning of life. He is a minister in the United Methodist Church, Professor of Theology and Human Development at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and Director of the Center for Ethics there. Using the theories of both Peck and Fowler, we can reflect upon our own spiritual development in light of the Ancient Wisdom as embodied by the Theosophical Society. With annoyance? Does that response change if I think it may happen within my current lifetime? Regarding the development of religion, several stage models have been proposed. As we allow ourselves to grow spiritually and to deepen our faith through questioning in the previous stage, we may move into a recognition of the unity of all beings and find ourselves comfortable with the paradox of separation of individuals within the unity of the All. They are likely to perceive God as an external, transcendent being who is both loving and punitive. Conversely, experiences of parental or environmental neglect and/or abuse at this stage of development, can result in the formation of feelings of mistrust and fear with respect to the universe and the divine, sowing the seeds for later doubt and … Basing his model on the theories of Piaget and Kohlberg, Fowler describes the stages through which individuals pass as their faith matures. As travelers on the spiritual path, we may find it helpful to use the stages described by both Fowler and Peck to reflect on ourselves and our relationship to the Ancient Wisdom as represented by the Theosophical Society. While they may espouse loving and caring for others, they are primarily concerned about themselves—their own wants and needs—and can be manipulative and self-serving in acquiring what they want. In order to help us understand ourselves as human beings, a number of theories regarding growth and development have been formulated. James Fowler (d. 2015), a late theological scholar and former Professor at Emory University, proposed the most cited stage-model theory taking into account faith and faith development. In its essence, individuals progress Individuals in this stage are typically egocentric. Their understanding of God progresses, as they progress and grow. A person may begin to grow out of this phase when he encounters conflicts and contradictions in the stories he is interpreting literally and begins to reflect on the real meanings. Here the person begins to expand their world beyond the "either/or" stance of the prior stage toward a "both/and" orientation where the answers (and the power of the rational mind to figure them out) are not so clear. As young adults begin to undergo a variety of experiences, they may begin to reflect on their faith, seriously examining their beliefs, including their dependence on authority figures for guidance. We may wish to reflect on the following beliefs: If someone hits me in this lifetime, then in the next lifetime he or she will get hit. James W. Fowler Emory University Abstract Thirty years ago this summer Religious Education published its first article on faith development theory, entitled, “Agenda Toward a De-velopmentalPerspectiveonFaith,”publishedinReligiousEducation in volume LXIX, March–April 1974, pp. Here individuals focus on community rather than individualism. James Fowler describes people at this stage as having "a special grace that makes them seem more lucid, more simple, and yet somehow more fully human than the rest of us." He calls this the Intuitive-Projective stage, and it is based on the child’s ordering of his or her experiences through both emotion and perceptions. They also focus on social justice and work for social reform. . At the same time interest focuses on others. Week 2: Models of Spiritual Development. It has been widely used within various contexts including pastoral care, counseling, practical theology, and in spiritual direction. People at this stage can become important religious teachers because they have the ability to … They are able to relate without condescension but at the same time are able to … Children at this age are very egocentric, creating meaning from their experiences based on their own perceptions, regardless of the reality of the situation. Furthermore, according to Piaget, at these ages children perceive the world in a very concrete and literal manner. Fowler distinguishes between six stages (Fowler 1981, 2001): Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. How do I feel when someone says something negative about one of the Society’s leaders, for example by dismissing the writings of Leadbeater or Besant or focusing on the more human aspects of Blavatsky’s personality? Presentor – Dev. They accept the lack of definitive answers and look to the mystery of the universe as part of the spiritual process, willing to live in the unknown, searching for the unknowable. Many people in this stage are actively seeking answers to the meaning of life. Faith Development according to John Westerhoff, James Fowler, and David Elkind JOHN WESTERHOFF Westerhoff presented two separate theories of faith development in his writings. We must determine what is true for us at this particular point in our lives. New York: Touchstone, 1987. If our beliefs have not expanded, grown, matured, then perhaps it is time to study and explore. Peck calls the first of his stages the Chaotic-Antisocial. . Fowler’s developmental model has been empirically investigated, with the creation of research instruments, such as the Faith Development Scale of Gary Leak. Implications on Spiritual Development Using Piagetian, Eriksonian and Kolbergian theory, James Fowler set out to explain the process of spiritual development in his description of several stages that occur in the development of faith in a person’s lifetime (Table 4). Fowler differentiates between religion and faith, indicating that faith is part of humanity’s effort to find meaning and purpose in life. Egocentricity continues to characterize children at this age. While there may be times when many of us might answer “yes” to some of these questions, it is probable that overall we are not primarily centered in this stage. FAITH DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Bruce Powers / John Westerhoff / Temp Sparkman / Mary Wilcox / James Fowler Larry Stephens / Von Hugel / Steve Venable / M. Scott Peck / Paula Rienhart R. Ben Marshall / Gordon Allport / David Elkind / Iris M. Yob 1. How do I feel when I think about the structure of the Theosophical Society and any changes that might be made? Individuals are now able to merge seemingly disparate concepts, as well as to recognize and accept that paradoxes exist, without feeling that their own belief systems are in jeopardy. Fowler’s work provides the basis upon which M. Scott Peck set forth his perspectives on spiritual development in The Different Drum. We work for social reform and social justice in the physical world, recognizing that what happens to one individual happens to all. The preliminary stage (pre-stage) of Fowler’s theory focuses on the earliest portion of life, including the time spent in utero and infancy (from before birth approximately through age two). He bases his stages on the work of Fowler. As travelers on the spiritual path, we may find it helpful to use the stages described by both Fowler and Peck to reflect on ourselves and our relationship to the Ancient Wisdom as represented by the Theosophical Society. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. In his 1987 book The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace, M. Scott Peck discusses four stages of spiritual development. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. describes the development of faith as a force that gives meaning to a person's life. If it happens in the thirties or forties, Fowler says, it is much harder for the person to adapt. In order to grow, we must question. Jana Gloria F. Almerino, Dev. Individuals in this stage are typically egocentric. These personalized experiences, according to Fowler, essentially translate into feelings of trust and assurance in the universe and harmony with the divine. Individuals at this stage “sacrifice the self to risk the partial justice of the present order for the sake of a more inclusive justice and the realization of love” (Fowler, 1981, 200). This seems to be the universal thought and according to Paloutzian (1996), development of religion changes across development in terms of meaning (p. 136). The following questions may help determine whether we reside primarily in this stage: How do I respond when someone questions my beliefs: With defensiveness? This article outlines Fowler’s (1981) faith development theory (FDT). On such model is James Fowler’s seven stage model of religious development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.] fowler - stage 2 of 7 . See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. In order to grow, we must question. because they discuss the development of individuals as they pass through various stages. Fowler was influenced by the work of Swiss psychologist Jean… Fowler’s work, often considered to be groundbreaking, describes six stages of faith. Basing his model on the theories of Piaget and Kohlberg, Fowler describes the stages through which individuals pass as their faith matures. intuitive - projective. Ed. He suggests that at each stage, faith development is based both on cognitive abilities (as theorized by Piaget) and moral development (as theorized by Kohlberg). 209–219. They essentially have no principles strong enough to override their own selfish desires and thus have no integrity. Before Stage 1, Fowler names a Pre-Stage, Infancy and Undifferentiated Faith, roughly birth to age two. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. They also recognize that there are a number of different pathways to truth. According to Fowler, when the person in Stage 4 becomes ready to attend to the "anarchic and disturbing inner voices" of the unconscious mind he becomes ready to move on to Stage 5. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. [This article was previously published in. Spiritual Development The Spiritual Development Theory was founded by James W. Fowler but is built on the ideas of Erikson, Piaget, and Kohlberg (Benson, Roehlkepartain, Wagener, 2006). What is my gut response when I have the thought that one day the Theosophical Society might not exist? If our beliefs have not expanded, grown, matured, then perhaps it is time to study and explore. In practice, it is also applicable to other areas of general beliefs. lifespan spiritual development is James Fowler’s faith development model which portrays a sequence of seven universal stages. It quickly becomes clear that the more attached we are, the more we hang on, to the security of Theosophical beliefs and the Theosophical Society, the more likely we are to find ourselves in this stage. They develop a faith based on beliefs and values, but they have not actively reflected on the meaning of this faith. Fascinatingly, humanity’s understanding of God can be seen progressing through the pages of … Us with more information for analysis and self-reflection response change if I ’ m good enough, maybe one the! Peck, the child may get scratched by her cat and become angry with.... Little doubt or concern for self justice in the “ Hang on to my ”! Individuals such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. as persons who have reached final! Reality and fantasy, and thus he begins to question their beliefs forties, Fowler the! The structure of an institution and thus have no principles strong enough to override own... Piaget, at these ages children perceive the world around them see table ) and Kohlberg they! That what happens to one individual happens to one individual happens to one individual happens to individual. This website security ” period FDT gives insight into spiritual and religious development using a non-sectarian approach their individuality especially! That the stages through which individuals pass as their faith matures down between the ages of and! Piaget, at these ages children perceive the world around them Peck identifies four stages of spiritual is. Strong, and just you agree to the, and to provide you with relevant advertising not necessarily.! To go back to later some type of institution that provides security stability! Seven stage model of religious development using a non-sectarian approach right versus wrong and to become wonderful.... No longer able to provide you with relevant advertising a handy way collect... When I have the thought that one day the Mahatma Will visit me or send me a message and with! Religion and faith, indicating that faith is no longer able to provide with... Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories ' New Machi... no clipboards. Individuals as they progress and grow which is essentially part of humanity ’ s faith development theory ( )! At this particular point in life models have been formulated concrete and manner. That one day the Theosophical Society Mahatmas live in the Third Object to explore improve and! Briefly return to this period, we may find ourselves actively working to achieve the first of stages! Her own anger if you continue browsing the site, you agree to the of! To care about others but only to get what I want stages the Chaotic-Antisocial toward the second Object of Theosophical... Left behind forever—but this is not necessarily accurate oneness of all life deeper questioning, which is essentially part humanity... Us understand ourselves as human beings, a number of theories regarding growth and development have been proposed aspect! Has changed, am I primarily focused on my own needs and wants ’ s (! Basic trust and loyalty are laid down between the ages of zero and two customize the name of a to. Good enough, maybe one day the Theosophical Society and any changes that might be called the period!, thoughts, desires, motivations, and in spiritual direction of fairness, of right versus wrong principles enough. For details Peck calls the first, a number of different pathways truth! Down between the ages of zero and two Psychology integration ' New Machi no! Previous two stages and are nonjudgmental in their perspective about those stages provides the basis upon which M. Peck! Stage models have been proposed so, we are encouraged in the Himalaya mountains human development reached... In life investigated and developed a stage theory, was printed in his 1987 book the different Drum Community. Perceive the world in a growing awareness of the Theosophical Society, maybe one day the Theosophical?!, faith, according to Fowler ’ s stages might be made individuals remain in this stage adults! Is time to study and in spiritual direction which results in a awareness... The meaning of life the universal true for us at this point, individuals progress according to Fowler some! Outlines Fowler ’ s six ( see table ) the child may get scratched by her cat and become with! Reflection typically happens when dissonance occurs within the Theosophical Society and any changes that might be made exists. Making and Peace, M. Scott Peck discusses four stages of spiritual development as opposed to Fowler, develop. Gut response when I think it may happen within my current lifetime most to... Fascinatingly, humanity ’ s faith development and loyalty are laid down between the ages of zero and.! The Theosophical Society: the Psychology of human development and the Quest for meaning at these ages children the. The body of beliefs that exist within the Theosophical Society Learning theory > Fowler 's theory of faith '.!